An Evaluation Of Blyth (BTH)

W900 Asphalt - Hot Oil Truck - Equipment Sales Inc Salt Lake City ...Blyth (BTH) calls itself a “home expressions firm”. Most individuals call it a candle firm. Neither description is fully accurate.

Blyth can rightly be called the world’s largest scented candle firm, as a result of larger opponents like S.C. Johnson and Sara Lee (SLE) are primarily engaged in different companies. Like its smaller rival The Yankee Candle Firm (YCC), Blyth is primarily a scented candle company. Nonetheless, in contrast to the Yankee Candle Company, Blyth has substantial non-candle associated operations – hence the “residence expressions” designation.

I am unsure what a home expression is; however I am pretty certain coffee would not qualify. From that fact alone we will safely say Blyth is not actually a home expressions company (final 12 months, Blyth acquired Boca Java, an internet retailer of espresso, tea, and sizzling chocolate). Blyth may not be a pure play scented candle firm or a pure play “house expressions” firm; but, that does not imply it’s merely a hodgepodge of unrelated companies.

There is a method to Blyth’s madness. From the producer’s perspective, candles, ceramics, frames, vases, coffee, and gourmet meals are very totally different merchandise. But, from the shopper’s perspective, they serve an identical goal. Primarily, Blyth sells personal indulgences to girls at affordable costs. That’s a giant enterprise in the U.S., Canada, and Europe. It also happens to be a great enterprise.


Since 1998, Blyth has had an average return on property of 10.33% and a median return on equity of 18.Fifty five%. One of the best methods to measure the inherent profitability of a enterprise (unbiased of its current capitalization structure) is to make use of the pre-tax return on non-money property (PTRONCA). Over the past decade, Blyth has had a PTRONCA of about 19.21%, which is excellent – although removed from great.

To place that 19.21% PTRONCA into perspective, consider it this manner: impartial of its capitalization construction, Blyth generated just a little over nineteen cents for every greenback invested in the business (earlier than taxes).

Essentially, which means that if Blyth hadn’t utilized any debt in any way it could have had a return on equity of roughly 12% (after taxes). Although a 12% return on equity would not sound all that impressive, reaching a 12% ROE without utilizing any debt would actually symbolize a stable performance for many public companies beneath most financial conditions.

After all, during the last decade Blyth truly averaged a much larger return on equity (18.Fifty five%). During this interval, Blyth utilized a fabric (however far from egregious) quantity of debt. Because of this, the corporate surpassed its personal stated purpose of achieving a 15% annual return on equity.

Based on Blyth’s previous ROA and PTRONCA, it seems to be an excellent business. If we put apart GAAP accounting for a moment and look at the financial earnings of the business, we’ll see that Blyth has truly carried out a bit better than its reported web income figures suggest.

Money Stream

Blyth’s free cash flow margin was glorious in every of the last a number of years. For the previous 5 years, the corporate’s FCF margin has ranged from 5% to 12%. Many companies can be happy with a 5% free money circulation margin. So, even when Blyth was at the underside of this vary, it was producing plenty of free cash stream.

Blyth’s free cash circulation has been very excessive relative to its reported net income. Over the past ten years, Blyth had a mean reported web revenue of $70.2 million versus an average free money circulate of $79.5 million.

Sadly, this hole could be entirely erased if free money move was reduced by the quantity Blyth has spent on acquisitions. From a shareholder’s perspective, such a reduction is suitable. Acquisitions eat up money in precisely the same means an funding in a brand new plant does.

Nevertheless, it is worth contemplating the two traces individually, as a result of it is much easier to match money outflows with particular acquisitions than it’s to match cash outflows with particular investments in an current enterprise. This is very true when taking a look at a company like Blyth, as a result of a few of the acquisitions are in different companies (and completely different geographic places).

Blyth has been able to consistently generate fairly a bit of free money circulate. Over the previous ten years, cash flow from operations (CFFO) has averaged $93.Sixty five million. The latter half of the past decade has been even better on account of sales growth. Throughout the past five years, Blyth’s CFFO has averaged $142.Sixty four million.

Throughout that same period, free cash move averaged $125.18 million before acquisitions however only $60.52 million after acquisitions – which is even lower than the company’s common reported net earnings of $seventy two.16 million throughout the same interval.

What does all this mean? For one, it means Blyth’s free cash circulate has grown way over its internet revenue over the past ten years. This isn’t shocking, contemplating Blyth invested far more heavily in cap-ex from 1997-2001 than it did from 2002-2006. That’s normally a good signal, however there are a few problems right here.

Slowing Sales

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Blyth’s gross sales growth has slowed significantly during the last 5 years. Earlier than 2001, the company had been rising sales at 20% or extra a 12 months – without a number of spending on acquisitions. After 2001, gross sales progress slowed to the mid single digits, despite an increase within the amount of money being used for acquisitions. Slowing sales growth is clearly a concern. However, it might not be completely specific to Blyth.

In the course of the early and mid 1990s, the expansion in scented candles inside the United States was tremendous. By 2000, more than seventy five% of all candles offered within the U.S. had been scented. At the moment, Blyth estimated that only 5% of all candles offered in Europe had been scented. So, a very giant part of the expansion in scented candles inside the U.S. was simply a one-time migration from non-scented candles to scented candles.

In an August 1999 interview with The Wall Road Transcript, Blyth’s Chairman & CEO, Robert Goergen, illustrated the degree of penetration inside the U.S. by citing a examine performed by his firm: “Blyth has performed analysis the last two years that indicates that when asked of ladies ‘have you ever bought candles within the last six months?’ 67% of a random sample will say that yes they have. That percentage ranks with girls’s purchases in the final six months very close to lipstick and face makeup, which implies that candles are a reasonably broad and comparatively routine part of everyday life.”


As soon as a product has achieved such penetration, it’s inevitable that the rate of gross sales development will sluggish. Gross sales of candles are restricted by the number of ladies in the United States, because males won’t purchase scented candles (besides maybe as gifts for girls).

So, once more than two-thirds of American women say they’ve just lately purchased a candle and greater than three-fourths of all candles sold in the U.S. are scented, the truth that the expansion in sales of scented candles is slowing must be seen as inevitable moderately than exceptional.

It’s exhausting to trace complete sales of scented candles, as a result of they account for a very small part of a great many alternative retailers’ gross sales. Also, while Blyth and Yankee Candle are public firms, many of their competitors are privately held. The speed of sales development at each Blyth and Yankee Candle has slowed noticeably in the last few years. So, Blyth’s current expertise is clearly not distinctive.

Troubled Times

Morningstar’s webpage lists Blyth’s inventory kind as “distressed” – which strikes me as a tad extreme. Nevertheless, there’s no denying Blyth is now going through a number of the hardest challenges it has needed to take care of in a few years.

Blyth’s Chairman and CEO started his most recent letter to shareholders as follows:

“Fiscal 2006 was a very challenging year for Blyth – in some ways, probably the most challenging in our almost 30 year history. Gross sales growth across North America and Europe was troublesome to realize as consumers, confronted with file power prices, had fewer discretionary dollars than in years previous. Moreover, the influence of double-digit price increases in all of our major bought commodities and freight had a dramatic impact on our monetary efficiency.”

Later in his 2006 letter to shareholders, Mr. Goergen put the increased commodities cost into perspective:

“Let me offer some context on what the doubling in price of a barrel of oil means to Blyth. The cost of paraffin wax, a byproduct of the petroleum refining process, increased roughly 20% over the previous yr, as sturdy demand continued while capability declined following the impression of hurricanes on Gulf refineries. Approximately 100 basis factors of Blyth’s fiscal year 2006 gross margin decline resulted from increased paraffin, freight, and other commodity prices.”

Blyth has three said lengthy-term company objectives:

– 5-10% annual gross sales and earnings growth

– 10-12% working margins

– 15%+ return on equity

For the 12 months, Blyth experienced a slight decline in sales and a steep decline in earnings. The company’s operating margin was 3.6% (properly shy of the ten-12% goal). Blyth’s return on equity also plunged, falling from 17.Forty two% to 4.90%. In other words, the corporate fell far quick of each of its three goals throughout fiscal 12 months 2005.

Second Quarter

During the present fiscal yr, Blyth’s outcomes have solely worsened. On August 31, 2006, the corporate reported a second quarter working loss of $27.7 million compared to a $sixteen.9 million operating profit in the yr in the past period. All of last quarter’s operating loss (and most of the difference between this year’s results and last year’s) was attributable to a non-cash goodwill impairment cost of $36.Eight million.

Last 12 months’s second quarter was additionally helped by a $5.5 million reserve reversal. Excluding these items, second quarter operating profit was $9.0 million in the second quarter of this year versus $eleven.Four million within the second quarter of last 12 months.

Blyth also took a $68.6 million loss on the discontinued operations of its European wholesale enterprise. In all, Blyth reported a web loss of $89.Four million throughout the second quarter of this year versus web income of $four.2 million through the 12 months in the past interval.

Internet gross sales for the last six months were primarily flat. Sales for the first half of the fiscal 12 months fell by zero.40%, dropping from $545.1 million a yr in the past to $542.9 million this 12 months.

The good news

The company is in a lot better shape than these current earnings reviews counsel. Blyth’s Restructuring efforts have obscured its comparatively normal operating results. Excluding the restructuring, Blyth’s performance has still been far weaker recently than it had been from 1997-2001.

However, the company won’t continue to report losses for years to come. Even during the last twelve months, Blyth has generated nearly $one hundred million in money from operations and over $80 million in free cash circulation. So, the net loss is definitely considerably deceptive when considering the company on a continuing basis. These losses is not going to proceed.

The Dangerous Information

Blyth does face actual challenges – and never just the short-term challenges introduced by larger commodity costs.

Blyth also faces the prospect of declining direct promoting revenue within the U.S. During the last yr, the variety of unbiased gross sales consultants in the company’s U.S. PartyLite enterprise fell by greater than 7%. There were roughly 24,000 independent consultants this 12 months versus 26,000 a year in the past.

This decline in the number of lively unbiased sales consultants precipitated a 5% decline in gross sales for the company’s U.S. direct selling operations. While the number of consultants in Canada was flat and the number of consultants in Europe was really up this yr, nobody could be stunned by a persevering with pattern towards fewer lively unbiased consultants and thus lower gross sales within the direct promoting enterprise as a complete and the U.S. segment specifically.

Direct Promoting

Blyth has lengthy been involved in the direct selling business. The corporate acquired PartyLite in 1990. That was four years before Blyth’s 1994 IPO; so, PartyLite has been a part of Blyth for the entirety of that company’s history as a public firm.

Direct Selling accounts for roughly forty four.7% of Blyth’s total revenues. The company’s PartyLite subsidiary has more than 45,000 active impartial consultants selling within the U.S., Germany, Canada, the U.Ok, Austria, France, Switzerland, Finland, Australia, and Mexico. Roughly 24,000 of these forty five,000 consultants sell throughout the United States. These consultants sell scented candles and other equipment via the social gathering plan technique of in-residence promoting.

In addition to its PartyLite subsidiary, Blyth now owns two different celebration plan entrepreneurs: Two Sisters Gourmet and Purple Tree. Two Sisters Gourmet is a gourmet meals firm. Purple Tree is a crafts oriented enterprise. At current, these companies incur multi-million greenback working losses as Blyth invests to grow them into bigger, more profitable businesses.

Regardless of their current working performance, these companies do appear to be a good fit with Blyth’s current PartyLite business and appropriate new ventures for the corporate to pursue. After all, only time will inform if any of these ventures develops into the kind of larger, more worthwhile direct selling enterprise Blyth is hoping for.


Blyth’s current value-to-earnings, EV/EBIT, and different such ratios are meaningless, because of the corporate’s recent losses.

In the course of the final ten years, Blyth has had an average EBIT of $113.Forty seven million. Throughout the last 5 years, Blyth’s EBIT has averaged $113.77 million – basically the identical as the corporate’s ten 12 months average EBIT.

Blyth’s current enterprise value-to-EBIT ratio could be very excessive, as a result of the company solely reported $32.03 million in earnings before interest and taxes throughout fiscal 2006.

Blyth’s EV/EBIT ratio could be rather more reasonable if computed using the average EBIT from previous years. Depending on exactly how you calculate both the company’s current enterprise value and its average EBIT from past years the ratio will vary slightly. Regardless, this “normalized” EV/EBIT ratio could be round 8.7.

That is a fairly low EV/EBIT ratio, however not an absurdly low one. To place it in perspective, invert the ratio to get the EBIT/EV yield (basically a pre-tax earnings yield comparable to the yield on a taxable bond). An EV/EBIT ratio of 8.7 translates into an EBIT/EV yield of eleven.49%. Clearly, that is a very good yield – especially in the present low yield investment environment. However, there are better yields on the market.

To be fair, the typical EBIT numbers I gave may be unduly conservative as normalized numbers, because they embrace Blyth’s abysmal EBIT of $32.03 million in 2006.

A greater normalized determine would probably be Blyth’s average EBIT from 1999 – 2005. Those seven years may be essentially the most consultant, because they neither penalize Blyth for its extraordinarily poor 2006 performance nor for its far lower total gross sales previous to 1999 (remember, Blyth had as soon as been fairly the expansion story).

Through the seven yr period beginning in fiscal 12 months 1999 and continuing by way of fiscal yr 2005, Blyth’s average EBIT was $134.40 million. If this average have been used as Blyth’s normalized EBIT, Blyth’s EV/EBIT ratio would are available in a bit lower at 7.34. That interprets into an EBIT/EV yield of roughly 13.63%.

Buying an organization vs. Buying a Inventory

As a enterprise, Blyth is clearly underpriced. If I were drawing up a list of companies selling for lower than they’re value, Blyth would be near the highest.

If you possibly can buy the whole enterprise by merely paying the present enterprise worth, you’d have your self a very good deal. But, you can’t. You possibly can solely purchase small pieces of the enterprise by way of the inventory market.

Nobody might purchase the complete business at the worth at which every piece is selling in the open market. So, in that respect, you are truly getting a better bargain than you would if you had to accumulate all the business.

Unfortunately, there is a downside. Shopping for the complete business is a pretty alternative, because the acquirer may use the company’s money move as he saw match. Buying a small piece of Blyth within the inventory market doesn’t offer this kind of management over the allocation of capital. That’s probably a very massive drawback, because cash will be squandered.

Has Blyth squandered money in the past? Probably not. Whereas it has acquired different companies (and to date has little to show for a few of these acquisitions), it has typically made these offers at affordable if not rock backside prices. There are various different public firms responsible of paying much more for far much less.

Alternatively, from the perspective of a a hundred% owner, Blyth’s free money circulate has not been efficiently reinvested in the business during the last several years. The returns produced by further capital (within the form of acquisitions financed with free money circulate) have been meager at best – not less than in terms of creating further free money move.

Over the past 5 years, Blyth spent $323 million on acquisitions, $230 million on share repurchases, $86 million on dividends, and $66 million on capital expenditures.

Proper now, one of the best use of cash would definitely be to buy back inventory. At these costs, investing in Blyth makes a lot more sense than investing in one other enterprise via an acquisition. Hopefully, Blyth’s management acknowledges that fact and can act accordingly.

But, should you spend money on Blyth? As at all times, that’s finally a private decision. A lot of people don’t wish to invest in firms in the midst of such upheaval. That’s high quality.

Nonetheless, failing to see the value in Blyth, simply because of its most recent reported results just isn’t nice. In truth, it is a very common and really pricey mistake.

You will all the time overweight the final datum in a series. It’s nearly unimaginable not to. Just as it’s almost unattainable to not imagine the current economic cycle will probably be totally different from all the remaining.

If Blyth’s most latest outcomes occurred five years in the past, you’ll see them for what they’re – an aberration. However, as a result of they’re the corporate’s most current results (and the final bit of knowledge you need to go on) you will doubtless see them as the start of a brand new and terrible development.

Human history favors the interpretation that years of previous data are more informative than a single yr of “current” data. Sadly, human historical past additionally favors the interpretation that this truth will solely be obvious in hindsight.

Future working results will decide whether Blyth is an efficient buy in the present day. I don’t know what these operating outcomes can be. However, I do know they don’t should be notably good to justify shopping for the stock at its current worth.

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